What to Expect

Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy for Individuals

Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy are treatments that focus on relieving psychological distress and symptoms. People seek analysis and therapy for many diverse reasons, but often to overcome difficult thoughts, feelings, behaviours, or relational issues.

Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy can offer the opportunity to make long-term changes since the focus is not only on managing the symptoms of a problem, but also on addressing the root causes of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. This process can help individuals to create changes that lead towards personal growth, fulfillment, and a more meaningful life. Evidence-based research has shown psychoanalytically oriented therapy to be particularly effective for people suffering with longstanding difficulties including anxiety, depression, low-self esteem, or a sense of lacking meaning or purpose in life. There is also a growing body of scientific research that suggests the benefits of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy often continue long after treatment concludes and can increase over time, an exceptional outcome that other therapeutic modalities have not been able to reproduce.

My approach involves careful and considerate listening, a kind of listening that is mostly not found in everyday communication. You will be encouraged to free associate, that is, to speak freely with as little censorship as possible while paying attention to memories, fantasies, dreams, and whatever else comes to mind. Listening together to what you say about your own life allows for us to have a very different conversation, creating the space for you to explore often overlooked or unconscious parts of your experience, parts that may be underlying the distress that has brought you to therapy. Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy allow for speaking what was priorly unspeakable, effecting insight, change, and relief from symptoms.

I support a diverse range of people dealing with emotional, transitional, and relational difficulties. I have worked with professionals and academics, those in creative and educational fields, college and university students, and members of the LGBTQ+ community. My education and clinical background are in language and communications, gender studies, counselling psychology, psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and community mental health. I am also informed by attachment theory, existential therapy, and trauma studies.

Which issues?
• Alcohol Use
• Anger
• Anxiety
• Behavioural Issues
• Bipolar Disorder
• Borderline Personality
• Depression
• Dissociative Disorders
• Eating Disorders
• Emotional Disturbance
• Family Conflict
• Emotional Disturbance
• Grief
• Life Transitions

• Mood disorders
• Obsessive-Compulsion (OCD)
• Personality Disorders
• Psychosis
• Relationship Issues
• School Issues
• Self Esteem
• Self-Harming
• Sexual Abuse
• Stress
• Substance Use
• Suicidal Ideation
• Transgender
• Trauma & PTSD

We meet in a private office on the 3rd floor of St. John the Compassionate Mission (155 Broadview Ave) where we will both sit on chairs for “face-to-face” sessions. You can use the couch only if you wish and when you decide use it. You are expected to speak freely, not censoring yourself, and you will be listened to carefully and without judgment. I will ask you questions, make comments, help you notice what you are saying, suggest connections between different elements of your unique story, and always accompany you, respectfully and all the way.

Length of Sessions
Appointments are approximately 45 minutes in length.

Appointments are billed per meeting at a standard rate plus 13% Harmonized Sales Tax (HST). Additional fees will be charged for letters, reports, forms, etc. Receipts are provided monthly for insurance reimbursement and for the medical expense tax credit in Ontario.

Payment Method
Email money transfers are accepted in advance of the session. Cash and personal cheque can also be accepted. Additional fees may apply for Paypal.

Missed or cancelled sessions without 48 hours notice will be billed in full.

Information shared in therapy is strictly confidential with exception to circumstances including 1) a legal obligation to warn others of potential violence as well as a duty to protect patients in the event that they are at risk of harming themselves; 2) The Children’s Aid Society must be informed if a patient discloses information regarding a child at risk for harm; 3) Psychotherapy files are not ‘privileged’ documents and may be subpoenaed by a court of law; 4) If you have been sexually abused by a regulated health professional, this information must be reported to the College of which the professional is a member.

Health Insurance
Most psychotherapy services are not currently covered under the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP), but may be covered by your insurance provider. Please check your personal insurance coverage. I can provide you with monthly receipts that you may submit to your insurance provider for reimbursement and for the medical expense tax credit in Ontario.

I do not prescribe and cannot advise you about medication, but will advise you to consult with your family physician or psychiatrist if you are considering the use of medications while participating in psychoanalysis or psychotherapy.

Further Information:

• Barsness, Roy. E. “Therapeutic Practices in Relational Psychoanalysis: A Qualitative Study.” Psychoanalytic Psychology, 38.1 (2021): 22–30.

• Cornelius, John Thor. “The Case for Psychoanalysis: Exploring the Scientific Evidence.” Core Competencies of Relational Psychoanalysis. Ed. Roy E. Barsness. New York: Routledge, 2018. 24-42.

○ See Cornelius’ video presentation here.

• De Maat, Saskia, Frans de Jonghe, Robert Schoevers, and Jack Dekker. “The Effectiveness of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Therapy: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies.” Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 17.1 (2009): 1–23.

• Knekt, Paul, Olavi Lindfors, Maarit A Laaksonen, Camilla Renlund, Peija Haaramo, Tommi Härkänen, Esa Virtala, and the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study Group. “Quasi-experimental study on the effectiveness of psychoanalysis, long-term and short-term psychotherapy on psychiatric symptoms, work ability and functional capacity during a 5-year follow-up.” Journal of Affective Disorders. 132.1-2 (2011): 37-47.

• Leichsenring, Falk and Susanne Klein. “Evidence for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Specific Mental Disorders: A Systematic Review.” Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy. 28.1 (2014): 4-32.

• Leichsenring Falk and Sven Rabung. “Effectiveness of long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy: a meta-analysis.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 300.13 (2008): 1551-65.

• Leichsenring Falk and Sven Rabung. “Long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in complex mental disorders: update of a meta-analysis.” British Journal of Psychiatry. 199.1 (2011): 15-22.

• Fonagy, Peter. “The Effectiveness of Psychodynamic Psychotherapies: An Update.” World Psychiatry. 14.2 (2014): 137-150.

• Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne, Mark Solms and Simon E. Arnold. Outcome Research and the Future of Psychoanalysis: Clinicians and Researchers in Dialogue. New York: Routledge, 2020.

• Psychology Today. Psychoanalytic / Psychodynamic Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis.

• Shedler, Jonathan. “The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy.” American Psychologist. 65.2 (2010): 98-109.

• Solms, Mark. “The Scientific Standing of Psychoanalysis.” British Journal of Psychiatry. 15.1 (2018): 5-8.

• Yakeley, Jessica. “Psychoanalysis in Modern Mental Health Practice.” The Lancet Psychiatry. 5.5 (2018): 443-450.